Johathan Shedler

Page 8 of 8 Previous page

The Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

Jonathan Shedler
University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine

February–March 2010 American Psychologist
© 2010 American Psychological Association 0003-066X/10/$12.00
Vol. 65, No. 2, 98–109 DOI: 10.1037/a0018378

References

Abbass, A. A., Hancock, J. T., Henderson, J., & Kisely, S. (2006).
Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4, Article No.
CD004687. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004687.pub3

Abbass, A., Kisely, S., & Kroenke, K. (2009). Short-term psychodynamic
psychotherapy for somatic disorders: Systematic review and metaanalysis
of clinical trials. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78, 265–274. doi:10.1159/000228247

Ablon, J. S., & Jones, E. E. (1998). How expert clinicians’ prototypes of
an ideal treatment correlate with outcome in psychodynamic and cognitive-
behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy Research, 8, 71–83. doi:
10.1080/10503309812331332207

Ablon, J. S., & Jones, E. E. (2002). Validity of controlled clinical trials of
psychotherapy: Findings from the NIMH Treatment of Depression
Collaborative Research Program. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159,
775–783.

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders
(4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, E. M., & Lambert, M. J. (1995). Short-term dynamically
oriented psychotherapy: A review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology
Review
, 15, 503–514. doi:10.1016/0272-7358(95)00027-M

Barber, J., Crits-Christoph, P., & Luborsky, L. (1996). Effects of therapist
adherence and competence on patient outcome in brief dynamic therapy.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 619–622.
doi:10.1037/0022-006X.64.3.619

Barkham, M., Rees, A., Shapiro, D. A., Stiles, W. B., Agnew, R. M.,
Halstead, J., . . . Harrington, V. M. G. (1996). Outcomes of time-limited
psychotherapy in applied settings: Replication of the second Sheffield
Psychotherapy Project. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
64
, 1079–1085. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.64.5.1079

Barlow, D. H., & Durand, V. M. (2005). Abnormal psychology: An
integrative approach
(4th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Bateman, A., & Fonagy, P. (2008). 8-year follow-up of patients treated for
borderline personality disorder: Mentalization-based treatment versus
treatment as usual. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 631–638.
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07040636

Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive
therapy of depression
. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961).
An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry,
4
, 561–571.

Blagys, M. D., & Hilsenroth, M. J. (2000). Distinctive activities of
short-term psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy: A review of
the comparative psychotherapy process literature. Clinical Psychology:
Science and Practice, 7
, 167–188.

Blagys, M. D., & Hilsenroth, M. J. (2002). Distinctive activities of
cognitive– behavioral therapy: A review of the comparative psychotherapy
process literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 671–706. doi:
10.1016/S0272-7358(01)00117-9

Blatt, S. J., & Auerbach, J. S. (2003). Psychodynamic measures of
therapeutic change. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 23, 268–307.

Blatt, S. J., & Zuroff, D. C. (2005). Empirical evaluation of the assumptions
in identifying evidence based treatments in mental health. Clinical
Psychology Review, 25
, 459–486. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2005.03.001

Bornstein, R. (1988). Psychoanalysis in the undergraduate curriculum:
The treatment of psychoanalytic theory in abnormal psychology texts.
Psychoanalytic Psychology, 5, 83–93. doi:10.1037/h0085122

Bornstein, R. (1995, Spring). Psychoanalysis in the undergraduate curriculum:
An agenda for the psychoanalytic researcher. Bulletin of the
Psychoanalytic Research Society, 4
(1). Retrieved from http://www.
columbia.edu/$hc137/prs/v4n1/v4n1!2.htm

Bornstein, R. (2001). The impending death of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic
Psychology, 18
, 3–20. doi:10.1037/0736-9735.18.1.3

Burum, B. A., & Goldfried, M. R. (2007). The centrality of emotion to
psychological change. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14,
407–413. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2850.2007.00100.x

Castonguay, L. G., Goldfried, M. R., Wiser, S. L., Raue, P. J., & Hayes,
A. M. (1996). Predicting the effect of cognitive therapy for depression:
A study of unique and common factors. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 64
, 497–504. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.64.3.497

Chambless, D. L., Baker, M., Baucom, D. H., Beutler, L. E., Calhoun,
K. S., Crits-Christoph, P., . . . Woody, S. R. (1998). Update on empirically
validated therapies, II. The Clinical Psychologist, 51(1), 3–16.

Churchill, R., Hunot, V., Corney, R., Knapp, M., McGuire, H., Tylee, A.,
& Wessely, S. (2001). A systematic review of controlled trials of the
effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of brief psychological treatmentsfor depression. Health Technology Assessment, 5, 1–173. doi:10.3310/ hta5350

Clarkin, J. F., Levy, K. N., Lenzenweger, M. F., & Kernberg, O. F. (2007).
Evaluating three treatments for borderline personality disorder: A multiwave
study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 922–928. doi:
10.1176/appi.ajp.164.6.922

Cogan, R., & Porcerelli, J. H. (2005). Clinician reports of personality
pathology of patients beginning and patients ending psychoanalysis.
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 78,
235–248.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences
(2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Crews, F. (1996). The verdict on Freud. Psychological Science, 7, 63–67.

Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., Andersson, G., & van Oppen, P. (2008).
Psychotherapy for depression in adults: A meta-analysis of comparative
outcome studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76,
909–922. doi:10.1037/a0013075

Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., & Warmerdam, L. (2007). Behavioral
activation treatments of depression: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology
Review, 27
, 318–326. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.11.001

de Maat, S., Dekker, J., Schoevers, R., & de Jonghe, F. (2006). Relative
efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of
depression: A meta-analysis. Psychotherapy Research, 16, 562–572.
doi:10.1080/10503300600756402

de Maat, S., de Jonghe, F., Schoevers, R., & Dekker, J. (2009). The
effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic therapy: A systematic review
of empirical studies. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 17, 1–23. doi:
10.1080/16073220902742476

Diener, M. J., Hilsenroth, M. J., & Weinberger, J. (2007). Therapist affect
focus and patient outcomes in psychodynamic psychotherapy: A metaanalysis.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 936–941. doi:10.1176/
appi.ajp.164.6.936

Elkin, I., Shea, T., Watkins, J. T., Imber, S. D., Sotsky, S. M., Collins,
J. F., . . . Parloff, M. B. (1989). National Institutes of Mental Health
Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. Archives of
General Psychiatry, 46
, 971–982.

Feeley, M., DeRubeis, R. J., & Gelfand, L. A. (1999). The temporal
relation of adherence and alliance to symptom change in cognitive
therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
67
, 578–582. doi:10.1037/0022-066X.67.4.578

Freud, S. (1962). Further remarks on the neuro-psychoses of defence. In
J. Strachey (Ed. and trans.), The standard edition of the complete
psychological works of Sigmund Freud
(Vol. 3, pp. 157–185). London,
England: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1896)

Gabbard, G. O. (2004). Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: A basic
text
. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Gaston, L., Thompson, L., Gallagher, D., Cournoyer, L., & Gagnon, R.
(1998). Alliance, technique, and their interactions in predicting outcome
of behavioral, cognitive, and brief dynamic therapy. Psychotherapy
Research, 8
, 190–209. doi:10.1080/10503309812331332307

Gloaguen, V., Cottraux, J., Cucherat, M., & Blackburn, I. (1998). A
meta-analysis of the effects of cognitive therapy in depressed patients.
Journal of Affective Disorders, 49, 59–72.

Goldfried, M. R., & Wolfe, B. E. (1996). Psychotherapy practice and
research: Repairing a strained alliance. American Psychologist, 51,
1007–1016. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.51.10.1007

Greenson, R. R. (1967). The technique and practice of psychoanalysis.
New York, NY: International Universities Press.

Haby, M. M., Donnelly, M., Corry, J., & Vos, T. (2006). Cognitive
behavioural therapy for depression, panic disorder and generalized
anxiety disorder: A meta-regression of factors that may predict outcome.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 9–19.

Hamilton, M. A. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology,
Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 23
, 56–61. doi:10.1136/
jnnp.23.1.56

Hansell, J. (2005). Writing an undergraduate textbook: An analyst’s
strange journey. Psychologist–Psychoanalyst, 24(4), 37–38. Retrieved
from http://www.division39.org/pdfs/PsychPsychoanalyst1004c.pdf

Hayes, A. M., Castonguay, L. G., & Goldfried, M. R. (1996). Effectiveness
of targeting the vulnerability factors of depression in cognitive
therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 623–627.
doi:10.1037/0022-006X.64.3.623

Hayes, A., & Strauss, J. (1998). Dynamic systems theory as a paradigm
for the study of cognitive change in psychotherapy: An application of
cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology, 66
, 939–947. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.66.6.939

Hedges, L. V. (1982). Estimation of effect size from a series of independent
experiments. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 490–499. doi:10.1037/
0033-2909.92.2.490

Hilsenroth, M., Ackerman, S., Blagys, M., Baity, M., & Mooney, M.
(2003). Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression: An
evaluation of statistical, clinically significant, and technique specific
change. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 349–357. doi:
10.1097/00005053-200306000-00001

Høglend, P., Bøgwald, K.-P., Amlo, S., Marble, A., Ulberg, R., Sjaastad,
M. C., . . . Johansson, P. (2008). Transference interpretations in dynamic
psychotherapy: Do they really yield sustained effects? American
Journal of Psychiatry, 165
, 763–771.

Hollon, S. D., DeRubeis, R. J., Evans, M. D., Wiemer, M. J., Garvey,
M. J., Grove, M. W., & Tuasn, V. B. (1992). Cognitive therapy and
pharmacotherapy for depression: Singly and in combination. Archives
of General Psychiatry, 49
, 774–781.

Hollon, S. D., DeRubeis, R. J., Shelton, R. C., Amsterdam, J. D.,
Salomon, R. M., O’Reardon, J. P., . . . Gallop, R. (2005). Prevention of
relapse following cognitive therapy vs medications in moderate to
severe depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 417–422.

Horvath, A. O., & Luborsky, L. (1993). The role of the therapeutic
alliance in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
61
, 561–573. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.61.4.561

Jones, E. E. (2000). Therapeutic action: A guide to psychoanalytic therapy.
Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Jones, E. E., & Pulos, S. M. (1993). Comparing the process in psychodynamic
and cognitive behavioral therapies. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 61
, 306–316. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.61.2.306

Kazdin, A. E. (2007). Mediators and mechanisms of change in psychotherapy
research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 1–27.
doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091432

Kazdin, A. E. (2008). Evidence-based treatment and practice: New opportunities
to bridge clinical research and practice, enhance the knowledge
base, and improve patient care. American Psychologist, 63, 146–
159. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.3.146

Kihlstrom, J. F. (1999). A tumbling ground for whimsies? Contemporary
Psychology, 44
, 376–378. doi:10.1037/002604

Lambert, M. J., & Ogles, B. M. (2004). The efficacy and effectiveness of
psychotherapy. In M. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield’s handbook
of psychotherapy and behavior change
(5th ed., pp. 139–193). New
York, NY: Wiley.

Leichsenring, F. (2001). Comparative effects of short-term psychodynamic
psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in depression: A
meta-analytic approach. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 401–419.

Leichsenring, F. (2005). Are psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies
effective? International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 86, 841–868.

Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic
therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of
personality disorders: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry,
160
, 1223–1232.

Leichsenring, F., & Rabung, S. (2008). Effectiveness of long-term psychodynamic
psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American
Medical Association, 300
, 1551–1565.

Leichsenring, F., Rabung, S., & Leibing, E. (2004). The efficacy of
short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in specific psychiatric disorders:
A meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 1208–1216.

Levy, K. N., Meehan, K. B., Kelly, K. M., Reynoso, J. S., Weber, M.,
Clarkin, J. F., & Kernberg, O. F. (2006). Change in attachment patterns
and reflective function in a randomized control trial of transference
focused psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74
, 1027–1040. doi:10.1037/
0022-006X.74.6.1027

Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive behavioral treatment of borderline
personality disorder
. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Lingiardi, V., Shedler, J., & Gazzillo, F. (2006). Assessing personality
change in psychotherapy with the SWAP-200: A case study. Journal of
Personality Assessment, 86
, 23–32.

Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (1993). The efficacy of psychological,educational, and behavioral treatment: Confirmation from metaanalysis.
American Psychologist, 48, 1181–1209. doi:10.1037/0003-
066X.48.12.1181

Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage.

Luborsky, L., Diguer, L., Seligman, D. A., Rosenthal, R., Krause, E. D.,
Johnson, S., . . . Schweizer, E. (1999). The researcher’s own therapy
allegiances: A “wild card” in comparisons of treatment efficacy. Clinical
Psychology: Science and Practice, 6
, 95–106. doi:10.1093/
clipsy.6.1.95

Luborsky, L., Singer, B., & Luborsky, L. (1975). Comparative studies of
psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 995–1008.

McWilliams, N. (2004). Psychoanalytic psychotherapy: A practitioner’s
guide
. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Messer, S. B., & Abbass, A. A. (in press). Evidence-based psychodynamic
therapy with personality disorders. In J. Magnavita (Ed.), Evidence based
treatment of personality dysfunction: Principles, methods and
processes
. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Meyer, G. J., Finn, S. E., Eyde, L. D., Kay, G. G., Moreland, K. L., Dies,
R. R., . . . Reed, G. M. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological
assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist,
56
, 128–165. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.2.128

Milrod, B., Leon, A. C., Busch, F., Rudden, M., Schwalberg, M., Clarkin,
J., . . . Shear, M. K. (2007). A randomized control trial of psychoanalytic
psychotherapy for panic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry,
16
4, 265–272. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.164.2.265

Moncrieff, J., Wessely, S., & Hardy, R. (2004). Active placebos versus
antidepressants for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,
Issue 1, Article No. CD003012. doi:10.1002/14651858.
CD003012.pub2

Norcross, J. C. (Ed.). (2002). Psychotherapy relationships that work:
Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients
. New York, NY:
Oxford University Press.

Norcross, J. C. (2005). The psychotherapist’s own psychotherapy: Educating
and developing psychologists. American Psychologist, 60, 840–
850. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.60.8.840

Norcross, J. C., Beutler, L. E., & Levant, R. F. (Eds.). (2005). Evidence
based practices in mental health: Debate and dialogue on the fundamental
questions
. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Öst, L. G. (2008). Efficacy of the third wave of behavioral therapies: A
systematic review and meta-analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy,
46
, 296–321. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2007.12.005

Pos, A. E., Greenberg, L. S., Goldman, R. N., & Korman, L. M. (2003).
Emotional processing during experiential treatment of depression. Journal
of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 1007–1016. doi:
10.1037/0022-066X.71.6.1007

Redmond, J., & Shulman, M. (2008). Access to psychoanalytic ideas in
American undergraduate institutions. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic
Association, 56
, 391–408. doi:10.1177/0003065108318639

Robinson, L. A., Berman, J. S., & Neimeyer, R. A. (1990). Psychotherapy
for the treatment of depression: A comprehensive review of controlled
outcome research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 30–49. doi:10.1037/
0033-2909.108.1.30

Rosenthal, R. (1991). Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Newbury
Park, CA: Sage.

Rosenthal, R., & DiMatteo, M. R. (2001). Meta-analysis: Recent developments
in quantitative methods for literature reviews. Annual Review
of Psychology, 52
, 59–82.

Rosenthal, R., & Rosnow, R. L. (2008). Essentials of behavioral research:
Methods and data analysis
(3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Rosenzweig, S. (1936). Some implicit common factors in diverse methods
of psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 412–415.
(Reprinted in Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 2002, 12, 5–9.
doi:10.1037/1053-0479.12.1.5)

Shapiro, D. A., Barkham, M., Rees, A., Hardy, G. E., Reynolds, S., &
Startup, M. (1994). Effects of treatment duration and severity of depression
on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic-
interpersonal psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology, 62
, 522–534. doi:10.1037/0022-066X.62.3.522

Shedler, J. (2006a). That was then, this is now: Psychoanalytic psychotherapy
for the rest of us
. Retrieved from http://psychsystems.net/
shedler.html

Shedler, J. (2006b). Why the scientist–practitioner schism won’t go away.
The General Psychologist, 41(2), 9–10. Retrieved from http://
www.apa.org/divisions/div1/archive.html

Shedler, J., & Westen, D. (2007). The Shedler–Westen Assessment Procedure
(SWAP): Making personality diagnosis clinically meaningful.
Journal of Personality Assessment, 89, 41–55.

Smith, M. L., Glass, G. V., & Miller, T. I. (1980). The benefits of
psychotherapy
. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Strunk, D. R., DeRubeis, R. J., Chiu, A. W., & Alvarez, J. (2007).
Patients’ competence in and performance of cognitive therapy skills:
Relation to the reduction of relapse risk following treatment for depression.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 523–530.
doi:10.1037/0022-006X.75.4.523

Tang, T., & DeRubeis, R. (1999). Sudden gains and critical session in
cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 67
, 894–904. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.67.6.894

Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures.
(1995). Training in and dissemination of empirically-validated treatments:
Report and recommendations. The Clinical Psychologist, 48(1),
3–23.

Thombs, B. D., Bassel, M., & Jewett, L. R. (2009). Analyzing effectiveness
of long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Journal of the American
Medical Association, 301
, 930.

Turner, E. H., Matthews, A. M., Linardatos, E., Tell, R. A., & Rosenthal,
R. (2008). Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence
on apparent efficacy. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 252–260.

Vocisano, C., Klein, D. N., Arnow, B., Rivera, C., Blalock, J. A., Rothbaum,
B., . . . Thase, M. E. (2004). Therapist variables that predict
change in psychotherapy with chronically depressed outpatients. Psychotherapy,
41, 255–265
. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.41.3.255

Wampold, B. E., Minami, T., Baskin, T. W., & Callen Tierney, S. (2002).
A meta-(re)analysis of the effects of cognitive therapy versus “other
therapies” for depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 68, 159–165.

Westen, D. (1998). The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a
psychodynamically informed psychological science. Psychological
Bulletin, 124
, 333–371. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.3.333

Westen, D., Gabbard, G., & Blagov, P. (2006). Back to the future:
Personality structure as a context for psychopathology. In R. F. Krueger
& J. L. Tackett (Eds.), Personality and psychopathology (pp. 335–384).
New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Westen, D., Novotny, C. M., & Thompson-Brenner, H. (2004). The
empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: Assumptions,
findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological
Bulletin, 130
, 631–663. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.130.4.631

Westen, D., Novotny, C. M., & Thompson-Brenner, H. (2005). EBP %
EST: Reply to Crits-Christoph et al. (2005). and Weisz et al. (2005).
Psychological Bulletin, 131, 427–433. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.
131.3.427

Westen, D., & Shedler, J. (1999a). Revising and assessing Axis II, Part 1:
Developing a clinically and empirically valid assessment method.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 258–272.

Westen, D., & Shedler, J. (1999b). Revising and assessing Axis II, Part 2:
Toward an empirically based and clinically useful classification of
personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 273–285.

Westen, D., & Shedler, J. (2007). Personality diagnosis with the Shedler–
Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP): Integrating clinical and statistical
measurement and prediction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
116
, 810–822. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.116.4.810